This review provides general information about olive oil and the possible causes of adulteration, mislabelling, counterfeiting, and fraud of the product. It reviews the possible adulterants in olive oil, the underlying causes of adulteration, and how to test for the presence of these adulterants. Data on trade and market dynamics are included. Also, the review focuses primarily on current deceptive practices in the global olive oil trade rather than historical adulterations.
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