Chinese researchers have developed a rapid, specific and sensitive method in a single duplex polymerase chain reaction (duplex PCR), using specific primers of based on 16S-RNA genes from camel and bovine mitochondria and D-LOOP genes from horse and goat mitochondria. The duplex PCR was applied to the binary mixtures of raw milk in fixed percentages, as well as processed dairy products (freeze-dried, pasteurised, and ultra-high temperature (UHT) sterilised with the same mixtures and commercial samples). The limit of detection (LOD) of special milk adulterated with bovine milk was 0.1% in raw milk mixture. Pasteurised and UHT sterilised milk raised the LOD to 0.2% and 0.5%, but freeze-dried milk did not raise the LOD.
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