A conceptual model for consumer trust in the food system relating social trust, beliefs in trustworthiness, overall trust in food chain actors (farmers, manufacturers, retailers and authorities), and confidence in both the supply of food products and food technologies, was developed and validated in 5 countries (Germany, France, Poland Spain and UK). The data were collected via an online survey in the 5 countries. Consumer confidence is largely determined by consumer beliefs about the trustworthiness of food chain actors. In particular the beliefs about openness, and especially about the openness of food manufacturers, are strongly related to consumer confidence. Consumer confidence and trust appears lowest in France and highest in the UK, although the differences are small.
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